Cutting edge research shows why caloric restriction increases lifespan.

The following is a series of reference studies that are showing exciting new understanding of the vitamin B3 and how it can reverse the aging process at a genetic level.

“Treating mice with a NAD+ precursor, or “booster,” called NMN improved their cells’ ability to repair DNA damage caused by radiation exposure or old age.”

” Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin, NR, could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function.”

“The human trial involved six men and six women, all healthy. Each participant received separate oral doses of 100, 300, or 1,000 mg of NR, with a seven-day gap between doses. After each dose, Brenner’s team collected and analyzed blood and urine samples from the participants, then measured various NAD+ metabolites in the samples using a process called metabolomics. The trial showed that the NR vitamin increased NAD+ metabolism by amounts directly related to the dose, and there were no serious side effects with any of the doses.”

“Studies in mice have shown that boosting the levels of this cell metabolite—nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, known as NAD+—can produce multiple health benefits, including resistance to weight gain, improved control of blood sugar and cholesterol, reduced nerve damage, and longer lifespan. Levels of NAD+ diminish with age, and other studies have suggested that loss of this metabolite may play a role in age-related health decline.”

“In particular, the researchers compared the ability of all three NAD+ precursor vitamins—NR, niacin, and nicotinamide—to boost NAD+ metabolism and stimulate the activity of certain enzymes that have been linked to longevity and health benefits. The study showed for the first time that oral NR is superior to nicotinamide, which is better than niacin in terms of the total amount of NAD+ produced at an equivalent dose. NR was also the best of the three in stimulating the activity of sirtuin enzymes. However, in this case, NR was the best at stimulating sirtuin-like activities, followed by niacin, followed by nicotinamide.”

“In mammals, there are seven sirtuins, named SIRT1 to SIRT7. They are involved in a much broader range of cellular processes and pathways with distinct cellular localization and molecular targets”

“Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust way to extend lifespan in most model organisms studied so far, from yeast to primates. Yet, its molecular mechanism remains elusive 43. After the discovery of sirtuins as a class of conserved aging regulators, genetic studies in simple organisms, such as yeast and fruit fly, suggested sirtuins mediates the effects of CR”

Despite controversies, can sirtuins be therapeutic targets in future medicine?

The answer is most likely affirmative for most researchers studying sirtuins and their functions. This is because, despite so many controversies, mammalian sirtuins have been clearly shown as a class of critical factors regulating many cellular processes, playing important functions in diverse tissues and systems. Sirtuin functions have been described in the central/peripheral nerve system, cardiovascular system, immune system, liver, bone, skeletal muscles, stem cells, and tissue regeneration. They have also been associated with most major diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, arthritis, and osteoporosis, all of which are age-related. For instance, in several types of cancers, knocking down SIRT1 sensitizes cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapies.”

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